Why the services are needed from a Licensed Structural Audit during repair?
Society can manage on their own. Society bye law no. 77 specifies Structural Audit as a mandatory (necessary and binding to Society) requirement. It stipulates that if the age of a building is 15 to 30 years, Structural Audit must be carried out once in 5 years and for buildings older than 30 years, it should be carried out once in 3 years. Also, well informed decisions can be taken by Society Managing Committee towards the Building Structural repair and painting works.
Who carries these Civil Structural Audits and PMC services?
Structural Audit is commissioned by appointing a Panelled Consulting Structural Engineer registered with the BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) and or Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) or Thane Municipal Corporation (TMC). The Consultant carries out as a visual survey of the building covering its Terrace top areas to , external faces, stilts, staircase internals, inside flats, shops establishments and ancillary structures such as Lift room, pump room, compound wall, etc. Repair history of the building and specific observations/ experiences of the members are also noted. Critical observations, probable causes of distress, remarks on structural health and recommendations for further action are given in the Structural Audit Report.
WHAT SHOULD BE CONDUCTED DURING STRUCTURAL AUDIT?
A “prudent” Structural Engineer would reflect the following in his Structural Audit Report, highlighting the relevant violations under the Municipal Laws, while keeping upfront the Approved Plans of the Building:
CONCRETE FRAME STRUCTURES. Its full name is reinforced cement concrete, or RCC. RCC is concrete that contains steel bars, called reinforcement bars, or rebars. This combination works very well, as concrete is very strong in compression, easy to produce at site, and inexpensive, and steel is very very strong in tension.
Reinforced concrete, or RCC, is concrete that contains embedded steel bars, plates, or fibers that strengthen the material. The capability to carry loads by these materials is magnified, and because of this RCC is used extensively in all construction.
Nondestructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. The terms nondestructive examination (NDE), nondestructive inspection (NDI), and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are also commonly used to describe this technology. Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected, it is a highly valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research. The six most frequently used NDT methods are eddy-current, magnetic-particle, liquid penetrant, radiographic, ultrasonic, and visual testing.
A truss is a structure with straight pieces forming triangles to support a load. The members of the triangles are placed under tension and compression but do not bend. Roof trusses are characterised by an economic use of construction materials (timber, steel). Composed of individual lightweight pieces, a truss can also provide considerable advantage in transport and assembly as compared to conventional roof structures. On the other hand, trusses are more labour-intensive and require connection devices. However, if a greater number of identical trusses can be manufactured, then considerable economies of scale can be achieved. The structural height of a truss is usually larger than the height of similar structures using solid beams. For roofs, however, this is usually no disadvantage as roofs must often - depending on roof cover material used - be higher at the ridge and lower at the eaves to facilitate roof drainage and ensure water tightness.
Bungalow home plans share a common style with Craftsman, Rustic and Cottage home designs. A great porch for your rocker, typically one level and over-hanging eaves are some of the classic features. Have you been searching for a Bungalow plan to build the home of your dreams? Check out some of Architectural Designs home plans and start the conversation. Large porches, overhangs, and verandahs link the bungalow with the usually ample exterior space surrounding the building. Bungalows are almost exclusively residential and are often made of rustic materials such as stone and brick. The roofs are usually constructed with exposed structural framing.
SSDC approach to structural strengthening is innovative, structurally efficient and cost effective by using externally bonded FRP sheets.
Strengthen columns, walls, slabs, beams, and structural connections
Meet the new code requirements set forth for each state
Strengthen for increase, axial load enhancement, torsion strengthening and construction errors
Construction errors, supplement cut steel, negative and positive moment enhancement and shear strengthening
Reinforced concrete water tanks are constructed for storing water. The design of reinforced concrete water tank is based on IS 3370: 2009 (Parts I – IV). The design depends on the location of tanks, i.e. overhead, on ground or underground water tanks. The tanks can be made in different shapes usually circular and rectangular shapes are mostly used. The tanks can be made of reinforced concrete or even of steel. The overhead tanks (elevated tanks) are usually elevated from the rooftop through column. In the other hand the underground tanks are rested on the foundation.
structural steel design, is an area of knowledge of structural engineering used to design steel structures. The structures can range from schools to homes to bridges. In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. Structures such as buildings, bridges, aircraft and ships are all examples under steel structure. The effects of loads on structures are determined through structural analysis. Steel structure is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties.
There are currently two common methods of steel design: The first method is the Allowable Strength Design (ASD) method. The second is the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method. Both use a strength, or ultimate level design approach.
Often retrofit involves modifications to existing commercial buildings that may improve energy efficiency or decrease energy
demand. In addition, retrofits are often used as opportune time to install distributed generation to a building.
Retrofitting of RCC structural members is necessary to prevent further distress in concrete. The retrofitting of RCC members
should start with investigation and diagnosis of cracks and then by applying suitable retrofitting measures.
Following are the steps involved in this process:
The diverse styles relate well to each other due to continuity of elements such as setback, size, height, materials, roof forms and color. Although there are often several styles of buildings along a street, repetition of these elements creates a unified streetscape. A successful rehabilitation might involve repair or replacement of original building details or the introduction of new elements that are not original but with careful selection and planning, it can relate properly to the original components of the building and the surrounding neighborhood. The following guidelines, photographs and sketches show sensitive rehabilitation treatments and help describe how the elements of each building determine its shape and character, and how that character contributes to the neighborhood as a whole.
Maintaining Original Building Characteristics:
The key to a successful rehabilitation is maintaining characteristic details and historic fabric. If replacement of existing materials is essential, materials similar in proportion and style to the original should be used. Saving the rotted parts may later assist in matching replacements. Items such as wood siding and soffits, fascias and brackets and wooden sash windows and doors, often can be restored or, at the least, duplicated.